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Revisiting the phosphorite deposit of Fontanarejo (central Spain): new window into the early Cambrian evolution of sponges and the microbial origin of phosphorites
Reitner, Joachim1,2; Luo, Cui(罗翠)3,4; Suarez-Gonzalez, Pablo5; Duda, Jan-Peter2,6
2021-09-29
Source PublicationGEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE
ISSN0016-7568
Pages20
Abstract

Fossils within early Cambrian phosphorites worldwide are often well preserved due to early diagenetic permineralization. Here, we examine the fossil record contained within phosphorites of the Lower Cambrian Pusa Formation (late Fortunian to Cambrian Stage 2) in Fontanarejo, central Spain. The sedimentology and age of these phosphorites have been controversial and are here reviewed and discussed, providing also an updated geological map. The Pusa Formation is composed of fine clastic sediments that are partly turbiditic, with channels of quartz-rich conglomerates and abundant phosphorites in the upper part of the succession. The microfacies and mineralogy of these channel deposits are studied here for the first time in detail, showing that they are mainly composed of subspherical apatite clasts, with minor mudstone intraclasts, quartzite and mica grains. Numerous sponge spicules, as well as entirely preserved hexactinellid sponges and demosponges, were collected within these phosphorites and likely represent stem groups. In addition to sponges, other fossils, such as small shelly fossils (SSF) of the mollusc Anabarella sp., were found. The phosphorites exhibit multiple evidence of intense microbial activity, including diverse fabrics (phosphatic oncoidal-like microbialites, thrombolites, stromatolites and cements) and abundant fossils of filamentous microbes that strongly resemble extant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Our findings strongly suggest that microbial processes mediated the rapid formation of most of the Fontanarejo apatite, probably accounting for the exceptional preservation of fragile fossils such as sponge skeletons. The apparent presence of taxonomically diverse hexactinellid and demosponge communities at the lowermost Cambrian further corroborates a Precambrian origin of the phylum Porifera.

KeywordLower Cambrian Porifera Hexactinellida Demospongiae microbialites
DOI10.1017/S001675682100087X
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS KeywordFILAMENTOUS SULFUR BACTERIA ; SOUTH CHINA ; CHAMBERED STRUCTURES ; MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY ; YANJIAHE FORMATION ; 1ST REPORT ; DEMOSPONGIAE ; FOSSIL ; EDIACARAN ; SKELETON
Funding ProjectAlexander von Humboldt Foundation ; Gottingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41972016] ; University of Gottingen (DFG-Courant Research Center Geobiology)
WOS Research AreaGeology
WOS SubjectGeosciences, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000767151300001
Funding OrganizationAlexander von Humboldt Foundation ; Gottingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; University of Gottingen (DFG-Courant Research Center Geobiology)
PublisherCAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.nigpas.ac.cn/handle/332004/40541
Collection中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所
Corresponding AuthorReitner, Joachim
Affiliation1.Univ Gottingen, Ctr Geosci, Dept Geobiol, Goldschmidtstr 3, Gottingen, Germany
2.Acad Sci & Humanities, Theater Str 7, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany
3.Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Palaeobiol & Stratig, Nanjing Inst Geol & Palaeontol, 39 East Beijing Rd, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Excellence Life & Paleoenvironm, 39 East Beijing Rd, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
5.Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Geodinam Estratig & Paleontol, C Jose Antonio Novais 12, Madrid 28040, Spain
6.Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Dept Geosci, Sedimentol & Organ Geochem Grp, Schnarrenbergstr 94-96, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Reitner, Joachim,Luo, Cui,Suarez-Gonzalez, Pablo,et al. Revisiting the phosphorite deposit of Fontanarejo (central Spain): new window into the early Cambrian evolution of sponges and the microbial origin of phosphorites[J]. GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE,2021:20.
APA Reitner, Joachim,Luo, Cui,Suarez-Gonzalez, Pablo,&Duda, Jan-Peter.(2021).Revisiting the phosphorite deposit of Fontanarejo (central Spain): new window into the early Cambrian evolution of sponges and the microbial origin of phosphorites.GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE,20.
MLA Reitner, Joachim,et al."Revisiting the phosphorite deposit of Fontanarejo (central Spain): new window into the early Cambrian evolution of sponges and the microbial origin of phosphorites".GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE (2021):20.
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