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Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications
Corresponding AuthorWong,William Oki(happyking@ibcas.ac.cn) ; Shi,Gongle(glshi@nigpas.ac.cn) ; Li,Zhenyu(lizy@ibcas.ac.cn)
Lin, Yanxiang1,2; Wong, William Oki1; Shi, Gongle (史恭乐)3; Shen, Si1; Li, Zhenyu1
2015-11-16
Source PublicationBMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
ISSN1471-2148
Volume15Issue:1Pages:18
Abstract

Background: Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. Results: The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Conclusions: Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to North America via the North Atlantic Land Bridge or floating islands during the Oligocene. Then the genus spread into South America probably via the Isthmus of Panama since the Miocene onward, and underwent regional extinctions in the Boreotropics of mid-high-latitudes during the Neogene climatic cooling. Hence, Bauhinia presently exhibits a pantropical intercontinental disjunct distribution.

KeywordBauhinia Bauhiniinae Bilobate Leaves Biogeography Caesalpinioideae Cercideae Evolution Fotan Group Legumes Leguminosae Miocene North Atlantic Land Bridge Orchid Trees Pantropical Intercontinental Disjunct South China Tethys Seaway
DOI10.1186/s12862-015-0540-9
Language英语
WOS KeywordAtlantic Land-bridge ; Northern-hemisphere ; S.l. Leguminosae ; Fossil Leaves ; Tertiary Flora ; Evolution ; Plant ; Eocene ; Region ; Fruits
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[41372029] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41206173]
WOS Research AreaEvolutionary Biology ; Genetics & Heredity
WOS SubjectEvolutionary Biology ; Genetics & Heredity
WOS IDWOS:000364805400001
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China
PublisherBIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.nigpas.ac.cn/handle/332004/18657
Collection中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所
其他
Corresponding AuthorWong, William Oki
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Nanjing Inst Geol & Palaeontol, State Key Lab Palaeobiol & Stratig, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Lin, Yanxiang,Wong, William Oki,Shi, Gongle ,et al. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications[J]. BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY,2015,15(1):18.
APA Lin, Yanxiang,Wong, William Oki,Shi, Gongle ,Shen, Si,&Li, Zhenyu.(2015).Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY,15(1),18.
MLA Lin, Yanxiang,et al."Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications".BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 15.1(2015):18.
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