NIGPAS OpenIR  > 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所
Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction
Brand, Uwe1; Blarney, Nigel1; Garbelli, Claudio2,8; Griesshaber, Erika3; Posenato, Renato4; Angiolini, Lucia2; Azmy, Karem5; Farabegoli, Enzo6; Came, Rosemarie7
Source PublicationPALAEOWORLD
AbstractThe cause for the end Permian mass extinction, the greatest challenge life on Earth faced in its geologic history, is still hotly debated by scientists. The most significant marker of this event is the negative delta C-13 shift and rebound recorded in marine carbonates with a duration ranging from 2000 to 19 000 years depending on localities and sedimentation rates. Leading causes for the event are Siberian trap volcanism and the emission of greenhouse gases with consequent global warming. Measurements of gases vaulted in calcite of end Permian brachiopods and whole rock document significant differences in normal atmospheric equilibrium concentration in gases between modern and end Permian seawaters. The gas composition of the end Permian brachiopod-inclusions reflects dramatically higher seawater carbon dioxide and methane contents leading up to the biotic event. Initial global warming of 811 degrees C sourced by isotopically light carbon dioxide from volcanic emissions triggered the release of isotopically lighter methane from permafrost and shelf sediment methane hydrates. Consequently, the huge quantities of methane emitted into the atmosphere and the oceans accelerated global warming and marked the negative delta C-13 spike observed in marine carbonates, documenting the onset of the mass extinction period. The rapidity of the methane hydrate emission lasting from several years to thousands of years was tempered by the equally rapid oxidation of the atmospheric and oceanic methane that gradually reduced its warming potential but not before global warming had reached levels lethal to most life on land and in the oceans. Based on measurements of gases trapped in biogenic and abiogenic calcite, the release of methane (of similar to 314% of total C stored) from permafrost and shelf sediment methane hydrate is deemed the ultimate source and cause for the dramatic life-changing global warming (GMAT > 34 degrees C) and oceanic negative-carbon isotope excursion observed at the end Permian. Global warming triggered by the massive release of carbon dioxide may be catastrophic, but the release of methane from hydrate may be apocalyptic. The end Permian holds an important lesson for humanity regarding the issue it faces today with greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, and climate change. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS. All rights reserved.
KeywordEnd Permian Brachiopods Gas inclusions Methane hydrate Biotic crisis
WOS Research AreaPaleontology
WOS SubjectPaleontology
WOS IDWOS:000388510600003
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorBrand, Uwe
Affiliation1.Brock Univ, Dept Earth Sci, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
2.Univ Milan, Dipartimento Sci Terra, Via Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milan, Italy
3.Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Theresienstr 41, D-80333 Munich, Germany
4.Univ Ferrara, Dipartimento Fis & Sci Terra, Polo Sci Tecnol, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy
5.Mem Univ, Dept Earth Sci, St John, NF A1B 3X5, Canada
6.Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Sci Terra & Geol Ambientali, Via Zamboni 67, I-40126 Bologna, Italy
7.Univ New Hampshire, Dept Earth Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA
8.Chinese Acad Sci, Nanjing Inst Geol & Paleontol, State Key Lab Paleobiol & Stratig, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Brand, Uwe,Blarney, Nigel,Garbelli, Claudio,et al. Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction[J]. PALAEOWORLD,2016,25(4):496-507.
APA Brand, Uwe.,Blarney, Nigel.,Garbelli, Claudio.,Griesshaber, Erika.,Posenato, Renato.,...&Came, Rosemarie.(2016).Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction.PALAEOWORLD,25(4),496-507.
MLA Brand, Uwe,et al."Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction".PALAEOWORLD 25.4(2016):496-507.
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